Hello everyone welcome to our special interest group virtual workshop to do technical analysis Phone Bentley Systems. Today I'm going to talk about the using clutch is determined factors of safety. I'm going to let everybody. Join in just give you other people to join in for just one additional minute and then we're going to start. OK, it's time to get started. So again welcome to the geotechnical. A special interest group feature future workshop for January 2020. First special interest group video of this year, so welcome everybody and all the happy 2020. So all our special interest group virtual workshops uhm. They always try to strive for 45 to 60 minutes. Presentation. A special interest group. Web and I will be recorded an it will be available fear your personal link so the one that you signed up for. Using that link there's also the language you can use here so the link was sent you by email. With that link you can also access the on demand video later. If you want to apply for a personal development. It will be applied to your bandit transcript. For all registered attendees. And also you can contact family Institute at bentley.com for any issues regarding this personal development our credit. Of course, our shakes are all complementary just have to register online follow the link and then you're ready to. Follow the training yesterday. So what we're going to talk about today. By the way if you have questions along the way. Please feel free to share them in the Q&A session here, so this section here for questions. My system just please write your question I might have time to directly answer the question or. At the end I will have time scheduled to answer your questions. So safety answers in plexus using find elements today with uncle talk about the bit about the factor of safety? How is it defined? How much does it relate to your project? How to do a safety analysis within Plex is? I'm going to do some examples do natural slope from notes on calculations and I'm going to add some reinforcements. 2. Improve the stability of the slope. Also, some notes on safety answers an deformations. Some notes on using andring type of calculation so if I also have access port pressures and if you're using it for instance. Play material. Well, open, it with material in which you want to assess the? Um. In which you want to assess. Everything that you want to. Learn from that, and also some benefits using defined download methods. So what can we also offer on Top of. Our slope stability analysis and then at the end come back to a submarine know that everything. Note that everything here applies both Duplexes 2D and Flashes 3D. So, although I use pleasures to Diaz, the application to show the example once a month supply plus 3D. Of course, black history, we have more capabilities in terms of handling different geometries using the 3D nature of real life. But for computational time we're going to stick with classes 2D for now, which makes things a bit. Quicker to calculate and we just have under an hour here today. So I don't want you to just wait for calculation to finish of course. So if we will talk about factor safety. Then uh yeah, we think about slip surface if you have a slope Oregon if you have an embankment. You might have some kind of slip surface that's being developed and that's the. We want to determine how far we are from this situation so how good is the How stable is the embankment. What is slope or? You just want to have some kind of idea what's your factor of safety. So usually we talk about slips River slope stability. In this case here example. We have the bishops method showing a circular slip surface. Uh. And we can calculate that using the available. She resistance and driving force of the. Where shall weight of the material? Now real life? How does it look like you can see the bit on the right hand side here? Uh, which is typical case for instance, when you have friends in the Netherlands, where you have. What did they which is even higher than the? Ann. The folder level. And, of course, you want to make sure that the embankment is stable enough. It doesn't fail because otherwise you might have a flooding problem. A show with high water tables. You want to make sure that you have a stable situation. So if you want to assess the risk of failure we typically use the factor of safety, which is. Uh. Not at a job phones as using French design approach like your code 7. Um in which you do partial factors but in this case. We just do a factor of safety based on the. Input parameters in the string parameter gift to this, or material. There are many possibilities of how to define these factors safety. You can think about for instance, that you have in this case here we show a short block with. Some will some loading you can think of affective safety is OK. I have a currently applied working load. I'm going to increase the load until we reach failure. So we have a fully failure load in a working load and this Rachel weekend that I'm determined this as the factor of safety. But we can also do is that we think about think about more on the strength child resistant side. So we can, we can look at the. Currently mobilized source strength. And then we're going to. She what's the available source strength available such that we can still sustain his load and we can take this. Rachel uhm. And for instance, in this case, it's apathetic case, but it might give you different factors of safety for instance, gives you one point. Wait, for the resistance resistance factors but if you look more on the action side, so you defer load over the working load. It will be. Maybe 5.9, so these are 2 completely different. Factors of safety. But Lexus does internally it'll determining factor of safety on your shoulder strength, so it's the Top. Um equation that you can see in this slide is the available source strength of the mobilized solar strength. So if you have to comply with some kind of factor safety make sure that they use the correct factor of safety. In Plex is how do we determine that this factor of safety for the source strength? We use a method? Which is also refers? Reference to S 5C reduction or share strength reduction. Basically, it's reduction of the strength parameters until we reach failure and with failure will mean we have an ongoing. Plastic filler mechanism that's being developed and we cannot sustain. The current equilibrium anymore. And we cannot reduce the strength anymore. Without causing problems or non convergence with equilibrium so we do a just a gradual decrease of our strength. Now, if we use, effective strength angle with this also shown here in the image on the right hand side. And we started with the red line. We have a certain friction angle and a certain cohesion and with that. Where we have our moral failure surface defined for for the material? No, we can reduce the strength, we use this Sigma imager for some MF. Which is a calculation multiplier its restraint reduction factor? An we reduce all the strength that we have in for all Sherman. Sure materials on a global scale so for the entire model. This factor will be. This factor will be increased such that the available strengthen the model will be reduced and we do this by. Lowering the tension of friction angle an equation in the same ratio and by that we will reduce the. Red line to the green line, so we just rotate over the Apex Point. Search that we have reduced more Chrome ferry service and with that, we can sort of check the current stress state if it's violating the state or not. If it's violating we have to correct the stresses. An get a redistribution of stresses to ensure a clearer minimal in the model and we tried to reduce it. Until we cannot reduced anymore on a global scale on the model. If using ongoing sheer strength. We also going to do that, but then we just use the under in sheer strength. And we're going to reduce it also with the same. A strength reduction factor and you can see here, the same factor is used for everything so if you have a combination even. Of effective and under in sheer strength in the model. The same factor applies so we can apply it for all these cases. So if you want to do such a safety analysis and flexible at the safety analysis through this feisty reduction or shear strength reduction. We have to start a calculation so how do we do that so if you want to determine a factor of safety 4? Assured in face so for engineering, many applied some kind of loading and then you shouldn't stress that you want to determine the factor safety. For this specific situation as you do from that face you create an you. Face and you change it to a safety type of calculation. The loading inputs by default Chateau, incremental multipliers choose the default option. An it shouldn't increment for UM this image. In fact, they said 2.1. So this is what we try to Increment. This MSF factors or shears or strength reduction factor we try to increase it. Every step 2.1, but actually what's happening is that in the first Coke Leisure said it will take this. Incremental value it will increase the summer measure from one to one point, one any subsequent calculation steps will have. Stepping procedures to determine the size of the next step. It also means that there if there's a lot of plasticity already being developed. Then it's not easy to. To run the calculation in your love iterations to get there, so the next step this summer for P. Decrease using the automatic stepping procedure. So when all that has been done setup. We just hit the calculate button. Then we wait for the calculation to finish once we ready. We do not have one single output. We have to check but we have to go to the output program. Generate a curve then we have to examine our. A somewhat measure first displacement in their output program. And with that, we have to assure that theory is reached because it could be that we did not. Do enough calculation steps and that we do not have a proper Philly magazine yet. Once we have assured that their Philly has been reached. This summer myself value at. This failure is what we assumed to be defective safety on server strength. We can reduce distraint anymore, so with this. In fact, if we know how much we can reduce the strength of the soil until we have. An unstable situation. So if we look at the example that we're going to do here we have here slope with a very steep angle. So for that I'm going to start the. Plex is application, so let me share my screen with you. Here we go. What you see here we have the startled? Window from the new pledges 2D Connect Edition. Update one which has just been released week ago. Show Hey, we're going to start our factor of safety demonstration. So here we have our? Show model is just a simple slope we have here. I'm going to show you here. We have our material defined. Hello material in this case is a more Columbia material trained so we're not going to look at under control behavior just yet. And with a short wait defined. Stiffness here a persons ratio and here are our strength parameters, we will cohesion and friction angle. So we just going to do the natural slope here. So I'm gonna need to generate the mesh of course. Once the mesh joy. Yes, I thought at 63 elements might be bad loans. We change it fine mesh. Then we go to stay construction, the initial phase here. Let me first activate my soil. And if I just throw up Oregon didn't use the board also I have to activate those shorter materials. So the initial phase here, we're dealing with a non. Horizontal soul surface, so we have to change it here to gravity loading which directly gives me a state of. Equilibrium at the end cannot procedure will directly give you a state of equilibrium if you only have horizontal. The water table. So the initial phase here gravity, loading and set before we have to be here. Go to go to the. Face and we have to change it to a safety analysis. Increment the multipliers summers if MSF so the incremental multiply value is at 2.1. Now there are some other sections settings here that we can do, but I will just leave them to the default option here. And I'm going to run the calculation, then we're going to see if we can assess the factor safety. And we're only calculation an I get a failure for the initial phase, which means that the initial phase didn't come to an. Equilibrium state so it couldn't convert to like Librium. So we double click on the face and here we can see load advancement procedure filled in the log info for the last calculation. If you've seen the special interest group finish video from December. 2019 we covered all the error code now to handle that one. We need to go now to go to the output program. And see what happens. I didn't even start here these safety analysis. So let's start the output program. And we can see some kind of deformation here it doesn't look that weird but with in order to assess. Why something filled we have to go to look at the incremental multipliers? Our incremental displacements, I must say. Let me see here there's some kind of slip server developed very shallow one. And also, if I look at the incremental share strange where you might be able to see some share bands here. You can see also here we have an arrow. Very shallow and narrow slips surface here. So what's happening here? Why does it feel I just want to activate the material and with this angle? So we can also measure the angle of the slope here. So what we can do, we can use this to wear? Distance measurement tool. I'll click on it. Let's zoom in a little bit and I click on crashed and that Oh. Will get a new window here and distribute distance measurements information message here and give me the 2 selected points so I selected this. No additional 20,000 and no 2481. There's a distance off in horizontal and vertical direction and also gives me more orientation, which is. Mine is 45 degrees. But as you might remember. If you look at the material information here. From the parameter step sheet. You can see that my friction angle was just 30 degrees now of course, we know when you have a slope which is much. Steeper than the value of refraction angle that this is not a stable slope so actually here. If you would, for instance, we do this with Linda. Maybe in calculation, it will give you a factor of safety lower than one. Find elements they need equilibrium to reach the Converse State. We didn't even reach that one so if you have a factor of safety lower than one flats cannot calculate with that. Oregon State in the other way around if Blacks cannot find equilibrium. It means that effective safety will be lower than one. How much lower that's hard to say because we didn't find the converse solution but at least it's a descriptor. Indication that's an unstable situation in which makes sense if you have a 45. Degree uh. Angled slope well. We just have a friction angle of 30 degrees, so we have to change that. So let's go back to our structures modes, I will double click. And this item, then I will change this one. 28 different location and put it to 1520. Here we go. And you will wear them much gentler slope so this should be able to calculate. Hum hum. Situation here, so let's calculate here and set them and generate the mesh. Just do a fine mesh. Give me 356 elements, he conceded here wanted generated. All is good practice to look at their. To feud mesh to see how it actually looks like is dense enough. One maybe 2, dense will just let me just get too much calculation time. But it looks to be fairly OK. Well let's go through station instruction. Initial phase still a graph deloading, which still valid case here and we just run the calculation with. Phase 1 will be our safety analysis and you can also see this by his icon which indicates that this safety analysis. But I will just double click here. And you can see it's still a safety analysis type of calculation. So let's run the calculation. Give me an error if I wanted to like no chance fresh points an going to ignore it for this run. Let's see what happens here. Alright so we from the calculation and let's go to the. Calculation results. And then we can see here there's some kind of deformation person happening a bit there are difficult to see. Also, um. Look at the values that very large values, I will come back to that later why is there not? That's important for the shape the answers were always interested in what's happening at the failure state So what kind of plastic. Philly mechanism has been developed to do that. We need to go looking at the incremental displacements. So let's look at this one. And we can see here we have this. Slip surface here, so this is developing here, which means I can clearly see what the magnitude is for our. Increment displacements or disorder plastic deformations. And with the Aeros I can also see in which direction everything is pointing towards so this is. A mechanism I had could believe so and with a Scripture for developed here and all the informations point that. This wants to slide in a downward direction. When you look also at the incremental sheer strange here, we are, we can also see here that here we have. The failure mechanism. So this looks 3, OK and the question becomes what is now my factor of safety. So, in my slides before I said, make sure that you selected point for curves and then you assess. If it has been reached, and then we can know what the factor safety is. Let me first then. Move to my. Presentation so. In this case how we change to a natural slope should we reduce slopes remove this. Bart here what's important we have to make sure that we choose control points inside the expected failure area. In this case for example, we already did the calculation so we know where to select points. Um. The thing is, we want to note for these control points, where we see a lot of the information. Where the filler mechanism is really making a difference in terms of deformation? So we can do that by selecting suitable control points. If we select control points, where we hardly see an information is very hard to judge how we can assess the. Fractal safety. So how does it look like when we have chosen these things then we make a curve so more. So actually typically you. Yeah, put displacements and a vertical axis. You do this strength reduction factor. There's some MSF and what we see. In the left hand side graph is that we see that there are not enough loads you can see here that the. So long as if value did not reach a plateau yet so we don't have ongoing information without any change. Both are some how much I value so it's still reach. It still in an increasing state, which means we didn't reach the plateau yet. So we didn't do enough calculation steps in the calculation settings. You can add more steps to our produce the model steps, if we? Had too many, but in this case, we didn't had enough fun stuff on the right hand side. Slightly different case. There you can see with after we had the peak it reduces a little bit to a more plateau like value. Around one point 12 and you can see here we have as the first stable value for ongoing deformations. For this specific control point in this case, we can see that theory has been reached. Now we cannot reduce the strength anymore. In order for that calculation can convert to a solution so in this case fairly has been reached so. There's also something we have to check at the end. It won't do expect the Philly magazine because it's always good to check what the failure magazines. This this is what we already did. Witcher to incremental displacements and we can do it in arrow, Zorin shadings. Or. At the right hand side is the incremental share strains of the displaced in shadings. So with that, we can have a good idea of what the failure mechanism is sometimes it's clear sometimes a bit less clear, especially when you have. Two more competing theory mechanisms. Actually done that bit less clear, but most of the Times you will see something similar like this. So back to the analysis that we were doing. Go to share my screen again. So here we are so we have to come back to the. Input program. An I have to select some control points when we do, we're going to select some point for curse basically? Let's hear start this option an without program. Now we shall we've seen that. We had the furious rivers happening in this area and so I'll do I'll just select the? Crash point. At. Don't ever stress point here. Just have to deformation so this one also select a point. Halfway the slope and maybe also want to do. Here just to be sure, I don't act like all the appropriate points also detail here. Let's run the update and then I'm going to recalculate the case here. Here we go while doing this, you can also see here if I hit the pause button. You can also get the indication of the summer. Value here it's in this case is 1.569. And also you can see here we get the near horizontal line so that's also. Good indication that we reach this uh reach a plateau level, which this happens quite quickly so it's not. Always here to see. Show anyone done with the calculation so let's go through again to the output program. And again we going to show the incremental displacements. You can see here. This is happening. Most of the displacement happen either. Along the slope or at the grass so I will select Chris point here for the curve. So let's load this one and got a new curve on their own to access our chose first point. So the note 488 located at 15. 20. And I'm going to select here to. Absolute deformations. An for the vertical axis the Y axis, I will choose the multiplier from throw from the project option. Here's a multiplier and there's something that Jeff Parameter and you can see here. This is the graph we see, there's a huge deformations in this plastic behavior. Um. I'll come back at the end. Why it's not important to look at the absolute information or the incremental values and also to reach hours? For a short some MSF plot first displacements in this case, we've seen here and we see here we can over over the? Analysis here that are some MSF is 1.573. With the points here that are indicated here with the. Or encircle these are considered to be the maximum of the entire graph so for this. Chart here for the curve. 49488 the maximum is located at this and this location at 1.573. So, in this case are effective safety will be 1.573. Show. Factory. Calculation at the presentation. Um so that's nice joke. We do what the limited integration can also do we can just calculate the factor of safety? Uh for a slope? Maybe you just want to improve the slope and maybe we want to add some kind of structural element there. In this case, I'm going to add a retaining wall. I'm going to do it in this case inelastic plate material. And so I'm going to add it, I must make sure of course, that it's longer than my uh. To not just inside my ship servers with also the extent so we're going to make it a bit longer. Come back to the. Calculation here. So. I'm going to go to structure mode and I'm going to create a new plate element and going to. Food is here. And I'm going to make it 10 meters long, I'm going to. Apply. Individual both sides so we can take the proper structure into account and then by default is taking the strength parameters from the adjacent to material. Multiplied by the are intersected that you apply define in your short material. And also I need to. Plate material here. I'm going to choose the S cheaper or elastic our prepared it. If we look at the parameters here as with him. And. EA value Chris Give me the actual stiffness in the bending stiffness with a factual rigidity. The I fell you said there's this value, which give me this equivalent thickness, the ratio of this one. Of these specified equivalent thickness. So that gives me an idea of how large my profile is for this cheaper warm. Just going to use elastic now an. Of course I have to. Generate the mesh so I just run the calculation. And. In this case, it's a bit different I have to insert a new face. I'm going to court. He still cheaper wall. Elastic. Which will be just the plastic? Don't go collation, so we started with just a slope in the next phase. I'm going to. Activate. The plate and the interfaces. And the next step will be that we do with safety analysis for this situation is also calling factor of. Safety or SPW. Elastic. Again, we need to collect some control points. Since I'm not sure where the Flip servers will happen. I have to select that could be that the most critical one here at the Top or at the bottom. So what we do, we construct crash point here they select one point? Halfway this slope a point halfway. Titilope. And here at the toe. Update and just run the calculation. We can see here we get already bit high, effective safety Titan is 1.56. No one point 5 Seven. That. So calculations done let's go to the calculation results. And this is the UM. Deformed mesh that we see here you can see that the. Cheap below here, mostly wants to rotate. And then we get some kind of failure behavior. So let's look at the incremental displacements to see what happens so it happens at the. Upside of the slope. Um Charlie This is the most critical side of slope. Also, when we look at the errors. We can see it's the forming in this direction. And looking at the incremental shear strains. We can also see that we have. This development. When we look at the. Fractal safety. So we could select the Crest again because it's happening at the upside upside of the slope. So uh selected note and not check total deformations. Again, the Summers F parameter and you can see here. We have here. Hey horizontal value at the end. And you can see here, the factor of safety is increased from 1.57 to one point. 877. So this is definitely improvements or something also which you would expect if we add everything. Well, in the middle of our slope to increase the factor of safety. So that's that's quite interesting to see an? Well, you can also look at these are now not only the deformations of the soil, but also with the definitions of our structure elements so there's double click it. I get the formations and we can also look at. Actual forces for instance, and bending moment 260, Clinton parameter permit out of plane. Now it could be that your structural element now overshoots its capacity ever just use a linear lastic material. We of course, do not have a proper strength. But it might be that you have some kind of upper strength defined for your shipper war because it's not. Unlimited strength is not unlimited. So what we can do we can also use. The UM. Different type of material footplate element so let's go back to the. Input program. An I'm not going to have 30. Elastic but also I'm going to use an elastic plastic cheaper wall in this case just made a copy of the material. Instead of having. Elastic I choose Elasto plastic. At the same parameters, but here in this case, I have a? Maximum capacity bending moment. And the maximum capacity for actual force. So here are the maximum. Bending moment is warmer than 54155 kilometer meter per meter. So there will be given an upper limit now. I also want to compare the 2 cases this year. If it does indeed make a difference. Shall I go on. Add a new face I got. Install sheet firewall elastic plastic. Search for the initial phase just a plastic calculation. Or different settings, we just keep going to activate here. Everything. And I'm gonna show going to go for a plate and I'm going to change the material. First click now we're on the item here? What is she here in the selection Explorer? She did I have indeed material SPWEP? MP155 so this means I have my. She got war elastoplast sick with my maximum plastic bending moment of order 55 Clinton permitting. And, of course, then I also need to. For this situation want to assess the factor safety so I'd run a safety analysis in this case an. We can run the calculation like this. Since I didn't regenerate the mesh I do not have to. Select the control points over again, so I can just use the same items again. So let's from the calculation. An after 100 compilation steps, which is the default by the way gives us defective safety so let's look at the. Calculation and see if we indeed reach the filling mechanism. So here. It's interesting to see directly from the beginning, we can see, there's some kind of discrete. Angle here in the ship Oh as if there's some kind of plastic hinge being formed formed so 1st. Let's look at the shore behavior, incremental displacements. And you can see here that it looks slightly different compared to a previous case so if I go back to the. Better safety for the elastic case. I just asked this lip service here at the upside. But here for the Phase 4, which is the one for the elastic plastic blade. We can see that the mechanism is already slightly different. Also, when we look at the incremental. Share strange. And you can see here that not really sort of a very discreet. Uh 30 clear mechanism is uhm. Well, if you compare it with the one from the elastic case, which is this one we can see clearly here. Every year we have. The concentration of our incremental share strange happening at the upper side file very final situation is not the case. Let's see what else happens with the. Played element you can also see here. The Delta deformations here, you can see here at the Sheridan elevation. That we do get version to the formation well below this way we don't have that one. And if we look at the forces. We can also see that here, the maximum bending moment is here, reaching the maximum capacity. And also when you look here closely zoom in. You can see here this point is horizontal so it's reaching the maximum capacity that we have to actually go to apps happening here. We reach a plastic hinge so that's being developed due to the result of the. Slope that we restrain for so it gets into a fairly state and actually here so he wants to. Push against the wall and she's going to form a year. Um behavior in the? Glade elements such that it will have to react by of course have to increase the bending moment in the structure. And here it's the capacity and wants to reach the capacity it will give a plastic behavior. So let's look at the results. I mean can you graph? Project will be. Again, I can select the crash point. I don't like to change that one. And then from the project, I select us only just parameter. How much season we have sort of 2 lines here but both of the factors safety calculations are shown here in the analysis? What I'm going to do. 1st I'm going to the blue the first Audi. Elastic one. And for that I'm going to change the. Number the Phase I want to show I'm just to the factor of safety for the cheaper or Elastic Phase 1. And we just change it to this one and I'm going to. And a girl from the current project tonight because we have the same calculation an both crash in one. Glitches file a lawsuit everything is the same select the same. And I'm going to just only select face 4. And I'm going to rename this too. Factor of safety elastic plastic. Until. Apply. And you can see here. That one. Carafe coastward like 30 meters deformation here, we have less. It's like 2 meters of information maximum so I'm going to change the scaling to suggest to a maximum of 2 meters so we can. She bit better was happening. Now, if we look at the results what we see here at the beginning, the blue and the red line day. They perfectly overlap what's happening here at a certain point here is that? Most likely how is going to re check? What's going on? We have to look at all the calculation steps. What I can imagine that was happening here is that the? Um capacity of the sheep over here is being violated an with that, we get different type of behavior because we get plastic beer plastic. Behave in the Lester plastic plate or here, we have the blue line showing the elastic behavior, so you can see here. In this case, it can make some difference in the results fully factor safety so. With the elastic plate it's around 1.8 share 8 or if you look at the red line here. It reaches a plateau for the show mash FLU around 1.798, so we did. We can get a lower factor safety by introducing this elasto plastic behavior. So if you do a calculation, which structure elements make sure that you also check the structural forces and if you think that. They've really overshoot the capacity make sure to use elastic plastic materials so that you actually also going to. Included maximum capacity of the structural elements. This also, if I go back to the. Presentation if we look at the influence of the material behavior for rolls angers and Geo grid so all our structural. Uh. Element material behavior if use elastic material. There's affect of safety that we go clean pressure, based only on. Show strength only. Answer this, if using elastic deal, we don't have any other strength of the plastic or the. Now structural elements. Um his result because the elastic it might give you access if high structural voices excessive higher structure forces. You can reduce them by introducing Elasto plastic material. This of course, can promote early structural failure, which might promote soil failure. And because of that we get a lower factor safety for the overall model behavior. Note that we can also include the. Strength reduction to our structural elements. We just have to make sure that in the calculation that we select for all elements that they also. Will need to include the? Uh apply strength reduction check mark that these are activated footage elements that you also want to reduce the strength for. So to improve the slope we can use play to elements for instance, to add a retaining wall and gather retaining. Or being extra plastic, which already shown you we can also do soil nailing. So how does it work? Come back to the. Model for you. In this case, I'm just going to. Remove the Phases here. So again started with scratch. Going data structures mode and going to remove my. Retaining wall and I'm going to add solar nails for this case, we're going to use embedded beam elements. Then they'll be mroe elements. In this case, we're going to use this option here and create embedded beam roll and we're going to play some here. At the correct location, so at 2117 in this case. And then I'm going to move to. This location 1111. 12. Now, with the same angle, I will put the 2nd row of shorter nails here. It's nice if you friends here and use the snap to object option that when you exactly on the line. Actually. You can see here that it highlights that I'm going to draw on the line because it highlights here. I want to connect it there. The points which are SEPTA bull just light up a little bits to help you draw this. So if I go to the location here on God 2714. Then I'm going to go to. Here. So we've thrown this soil nails. Now what happens with the current. Option here is that? With this square along the Connection point with the rest of the final mesh actually we're going to have a rigid connection. Now, if we just. Install the soil nails as a still cube without doing anything going into anything of course, you want to make sure that. Just have a free and we can do that, and select the items here and we're going to change the. Connection from rigid 2 free. And also see here that the. Little square at the connection point is removed. I don't have to play material. In this case already prepared the soil nails or does it look. Soil nails, it will give us A? Stiffness parameters and a weight parameter in this case, I use a predefined solid circular beam. The diameter is 3.2 centimeters .32 meters so it's a really thin tool that we just. Put shoulder. For spacing this is the out of plane spacing so we just placed his item in in our lives. Direction 1 media report. So actually and this is when you look in 3D space. This element sort of perpendicular to your screen will be placed. 1 meter. For the interaction elements with the with the soil, the embedded liberal element uses an implicit formulation for interface. Elements so we do not have to apply this one here. And in this case here we're going to do the actual skin resistance. We put it to some arbitrary high values because we do not want to. Half the this fill in there. On the interface of our. And there have been no elements. It's working OK. I'm going to go to. Mesh malt generate mesh. Stage construction or don't do I said, well again with the cannot procedure Phase 1? I will do a safety analysis. Just that we can compare the. The case with and without sure nails. And then add a new face I'm going to. Install. Nails. Wanted to do with installing the oceanologist wisdom in place activate them here. They are and we want to do the. Factor of safety for the. Show nails. This case also going to change the. She in others type to safety. And face one one order on just renamed factor of safety folder natural slope. So we've done all the preparation, but of course, also please select points with curves. Click it will remind you but there's good practice to select these points anyway. And what I'll do I'll do in a little bit again. I selected crashed selected point here. Also at the point here. Should I do not know up front where my exact? Most critical. Highest deformation happened, I'll just select few points along the surface here. Update. And then I'm going to run the calculation uhm. So here we go. So while the calculation is running we can also full the progress answer the natural slow clear is roughly at one point. The 4th one point 5. 2. And then we're going to install nails and then we're going to run the calculation and we can see here. What the factor shapes will be it will be she put those around 1.8? 8 roughly Well, but had 9 even. So let's go through the calculation results and see what's happening here. So we can see here that are my elements had their faith in Ellensburg job there, easy to uh. To Ben through that you can see the follow the? Contour here. Let's go to the incremental displacements. And you can see the most critical slips. Rivers years happening actually at the bottom part so we have to make sure that we selected. Between X 28 and 32. When we want to generate the graph. Look at the incremental shear strains. Cover sheet at the most critical most. Um critical soldier us lip service is happening here at the bottom part of the slope so. Maybe you want to optimize design. You might want to place this soul never maybe. Get closer to the two of the slope. OK let's assess the factor of safety content rating news. Chart and I'm going to select this point, which is halfway. The lower part of the slope. Let's look at the deformations. Project summary Jeff. And also going to do that. Natural slope. I want to change phases, so I'll just deflect everything except in net natural slope face. And I'm going to add. A new project from earning fish nude curve from the product. Current project and also going to rename this one and only do the. One for sure nails. Here we go. Apply you can see. One conclusion has like 1617 kilometres of deformation. And this one is not that much, so we're going to change this one. No shut it to let's say 7255 meters maximum. Let's see how it looks like. My don't create then. Again apply and if we see here. At least the red curve fits entirely and the blue one has a horizontal. But they've already reached so we're good to go through his chest. Here are factors of safety. So we see the blue line is the natural slope here has a factor of safety of 1.5. Or. If you look in the case with the soil nails, we can see that here it starts to go towards. Stable value and at the end, it reaches factor safety 1.89, but just adding this role nails, we increase the factor of safety. Would slow to 1.89, so it's very easy way to also assess yourself stability with and without structural elements using fire. Methods. OK so we've shown teaching these cases and one case, that we saw is that we have the result this huge amount of deformation happening. In the last case. If you look at the safety analysis an? In the absolute information that we get from safety analysis when we run disk types calculation. This they do not have a physical meaning. In your safety nails going enriched this incremental multiplier calculation will just keep on performing calculations until reaches the number of steps that we have. Every time it tries to reduce the strength a little bit and by what's happening. Then in this case, it would? Which we can show here in the animation? Is that? Yeah, we started with the red stretch state actually it's already. Yeah, it's already on the the maximum capacity short 3rd column? Uh the column fabric athyrium. So we do strength reduction. And it lowers the maximum strength so the red stretch state here is actually outside are. Theory envelope show the color blush calculation will correct the stresses and of course, when it reduces stress test at one point, it has to read. Redistribute the stresses to adjacent points he would just look at one specific stress point. So then introduces to this blue point. Anything else by doing that actually are strange will increase. Now we tried to do the reduction. One more step because we Are not done with calculation yet? And we reached this stretch that would even more strange now. If we repeat the calculation for this 4th step actually. We're still here, uh will because we cannot reduce. Anymore, but while trying to reduce it. It will generate more deformations. Now, if we had this we can see that we get a lot of strange and. It's a lot of deformations. These are non physical but they indicate. What kind of? Additional strength we have still left in the model with that, we can. Compute R factor of safety. There's always, there's also the care, then why we look at our incremental deformations in our incremental shear strains in the final step. To inspect our proof likely Firmenich mechanism or the most critical one, which is determined by find don't calculation. And we can. Then want to see if we get this table, someone's Death Valley, which I already showed you in there. Girls' Generation. Show. The actual information at another physical, meaning look at the incremental displacements when you reach when you do a safety analysis. Or when you have failed state in your calculations or friend for instance, your plastic calculation gives you a Red Cross. It's the same type of uh. Input and output that you want to check. Some notes on underlying type of calculations and we didn't cover this in the demonstration. But it's good to know that by default, the safety answers will always generate accessport pressures if you are using. Undrained a or Bing material. So it's just under 800B by default. The shake hands will also generate additional accessport pressures, it might might be desired or not. If it's not the giath, please enable the option ignore 100 behavior, then you will not generate. Additional accessport pressures. So, but what's the result of this typically but not of course, isn't always the case because there are always exceptions to this TuneIn general. When I use this ignore undrained which behavior for your hundred tambi materials. It usually gives us a higher factor of safety for loading problems. Unlike some bang that I showed you in the demonstration. Or it might give you a lower factor safety for unloading problems for instance, if you do an excavation type problem. Thank you for any situation, which might get to access portions. If we didn't have more uh if we don't have the ignorant behavior actually defect rates will be lower. Install loading problem, so basically if you have loading problem. You should not disable this higher factor safety if you excavations. I'm so much better today. Use the ignore 100 days to get the most critical and most conservative factor of safety if you're not sure. Run both cases, and see what's going on. Calculations especially in lectures 3 or not, that long and gives you much more insight of what's going on. Home to help you assess the proper factor safety or. If it's not uh. If it's not giving you the desired factor safety, then those gives you insight of what to change to the design. Only ported notes on using hundreds. Show behavior in safety analysis. If you have the latency and with the latency and we start the sheer of course, then will get. William expansion due to the latency. When it happens, and you can rinse or be Asian actually. This unresolved prevents the delayed if behavior that means that uh access properties tried to quit. X is struck, Tiens tried to keep the. Volume change to 0. Has means? If the dish Explorer verify that actually we have an increase of effective stress and we have that actually it leads to an increase in. You are strengths oil should mean means. Because this is uh. This behavior should have. Bleach too. More dilated behave from more extra access poor suction more access. Stress developments an it's like a vicious circle behavior should it can lead to very high factors of safety. Show if you do have the latency in your model combined with underinsured behavior switch the LNG angle to 0 for your safety numbers. Have a little bit beyond our uh. Safety L is what started benefits of using define towel method for safety analysis. If you first used information analysis, it gives us our stress distribution. For which we can run the safety analysis on. A combined with stage construction, we can just also have historical strength behavior, which means we can take over. So they shun into account, but also influence of time dependent process is like consolidation trenching ground with the flow. So how we can take any snapshot in time and run a safety answers for that as long as. It's static. Um calculations, which not for dynamic calculation cost and of course, we also dealing with actual original philosophies. But if you're not dealing with dynamic calculation, we can also take snapshots in time for your time dependent process of consultation. Entrenching overflow. Say to go closure will always give you the most critical failure mechanism, so you do not have to specify up front. Any possible theory mechanisms Blacks will give you the most critical one and it can be a circle ship surface like in the demonstration. But if you have a more complex or layering or something else in it. Well, not always give you a shirtless trip service. It will always give you the most critical one that is confined. Hum. Now we look beyond our safety dance with the safety and just take his christic values of strength and then. Try to reduce those. In general if you have to do a safety analysis is not only an evaluation of ultimate strength. You might have some structure structures, there or do your structures there. In which you also have to assess the performance and it could be major. Maybe if a major rebuilding. If if it deforms too much. The major really starts to crack an when that happens of course, then there's little damage to the building. Which is also not acceptable so safety is not only ultimate strength but also performance when you find elements? Find El Methods Orb, Lexus, we can also apply our design approaches using partial factors so we can apply partial factors on the resistance. So that means we can put partial factors on the source strength. I'm going to put partial factors on the actions. That means we can have such a factor on the loads that being applied and then we can also assess their performance within this. Mesh deformations that come from the analysis, so there's also always an option to check that. Just to summarize here, um factor of safety in places is a factor of safety of source strength. Um. It might be different from your local practice so please check what the artifact of safety is defined in your design. Make sure that you use sufficient number of load steps or make sure that you run you always check it with a? Incursion in the output program take. Appropriate control points like a note in there. A suspected failures area and then make a curve of displacement switches from MSF. Also I will give you some notes on androids show behavior an the structure behavior. The infinitely elastic 1st. The plastic. And a final note treated calculation in find elements will find you the most critical failures mechanism. So that's always a good benefit because you do not have to think about or should it should be. Should be a circle slip surface or lips or it or something else and should be uh if you have like an? Embankment should be on the left side, the right side collections will find it for you. For move to the questions here are some references in Bentley communities so energy technical wiki you can find some. Papers here. Print Craven Bucher published the method of the 5C reduction. It's nonlinear find an answer of safety factors. You can find it in our wiki. Try this link. And there's a model wiki resources on safety nails and displacements. So what? What are the 3 different explosion mean to the absolute displacements another physical meaning? Nothing can give you good indication of the slip surface something on Andre and behavior if you use the safety analysis combined with update? Mesh there's also another option is safety analysis, using a target values explained in this article. And some background on how to select these control points or the point for cursors. We call it in this article. Should should also help you bit with my bit more background? Most of some upcoming practice events. At the end of January, we have a standard course for computational geotechnics so basic. Standard course using plexus well to get a lot of theory and background. Next month for the shake will include simulating sure lab testing plexus so that helps you to model. Reality compared with soil laboratory test results, and see what the model parameters will give you for type behavior. I will show the upcoming workshop on using Python to automate your practice calculations or result assessments. And beginning of March. We have the Advanced Course Anna Special course they own dynamics and such make too technical. Nearing. So I received a lot of people have some questions so that's good, she still have 20 minutes to go over your questions so let's see how far we can get. Hum. If based on the now I'd only. Uh presentations today do you want somebody to contact you then please indicate yes in the? Prestea in the pool on. Then it's time for the questions. Bruno art, the question here. How did the reduction factor applies to other considered models for example ground modified gameplay? So when there's a distinct, um theory mechanism. Then the plexus can just reduce those things parameters well so for Brown. We have this one for holding soil so, so, so, so creepy. Uh we do not have the modified gameplay. Uh, which is critical state. Uh. Model to the The critical state line will not be adjusted, according to the factory safeties or modified camp, they will not work with the. With the safety analysis, but all the other models do including the concrete model. Bring also asked another the error code for the slope example. That did not convert that did not show up. So collapse choir death and can reliably conclude that he Model has shown short failure from the incremental displacements, so I guess that you hear referred to the case. Um. And where we have the UM show body. Shoulder seems to collapse is the result of the numerical method, I should say so. When you use plastic type of calculation? The in the automatic stepping procedure. When using Arch Lane control. We actually are able to detect failure. When we have a decreasing size of load steps in 5. Subsequent steps that the devil option. And we can also increase included by changing the Max a maximum number of uhm. Reduced load steps so there's an option for that that you can actually limit at one. Then it gives us all abolishing the collapse because that's part of the American method? Which of our language rule. Alexa does not give you have to assess the failure yourself. Um. If we do a factor of safety calculation. There's no mechanism to stop the calculation if it just run until it reaches the end and while you have to. Assess yourself from that their curve that were shown so the displacements furthers. The Solomon Jeff value that will reach a plateau. And then that's where we assume the factor of safety, so that's something that you assess yourself. And Charles asked the question can explain circulation type on the stage construction initial face general calculation types. Um. Let's go. Here are very quick. Thing uh. Let's do a screen share. So for the initial state we can use different types of calculation types. We can see them here. There's also a nice panel here at the side. What does it do we can do a quick cannot procedure? So based on a short wait plexus just looks vertically upward how much rule is above how much that. What's the weight of that soil an it will give you the vertical stretch based on the cannot value that you define in your show. Cereal it will determine the horizontal stretch that gives you are stressed date that works best when you have horizontal shore layers in order on the water table. If you do not have that one. You Frank Inferences used gravity, loading it's generating initial stresses from a finite. Calculation so just uses the rest of plasticity theory. As well to initialize stressors so it does not with the zeros threshing is going to increase from 0. 200% over the calculation so it's the same types calculation that we use for plastic types of calculations. Hum or if you have a corner of the layers. We also have to use to implement over consultation. You might need to use a few calculation face to get to that stage starting but it cannot procedure. Hello plus signals that always if you do that. Start with no numbers on the stress is a non horizontal. Show Fishers. Run cannot procedure always do. Equilibrium plastic Neil step after that, so that's just a new face a plastic calculation do not change anything. Just to calculate an equilibrium feel sticky note procedure does not guarantee an equilibrium state if you have none. Horizontal surfaces. So and after that one always check you any structures because. The initial stresses will be the start of your. Project basically you should always start with the correct stress states. Otherwise, you might interest rate in the near failure state. Or with Unrealistic stresses which of course, then if you're going to load it also not does not provide you the correct stretch parts until the failure. Feel stress feel such as an option where you can directly apply the stress is a uniform stresses so Sigma one Sigma tree you can define it for the whole. Troy body typically use those one when you for answers do an analysis for deep tunnel. Somewhere in the mountains like 200 meters below the soil surface if in a constant stress field it might. Rotated the tools option in the field stress. Uh it's direct generation of your initial effective treasures around you give Sigma one symmetry an angle free signal one. And with that it's directly stress generation used usually when you are doing very. Deep. I'm on the ground work. For lonely rod option when you have the flexural module. Um. Then we do not do an effective stress calculation flow only does the ground of logo collision you can use it when you only wanted to assess? Ground flow calculations. So we're not going to do any deformation type of calculation. So I hope that answers your question uhm. Pronounce the question an do I have to start over. The safety calculation to increase the number of steps. What can I run the calculation starting where the one with? Insufficient steps ended. That's a very good question so the question relates back to if I come back here. So when we are back in the presentation answer the question was if I end up with the left condition here. I'm at the. Left hand side with another load steps throwing not reached. In this case, the If you want to just add a new face and continue from that, you can do that make sure you do not reset. Any of the options like reset displacements make sure that they use the same ignore under behavior yes or no. Make sure that everything is the same and then you're going to continue just by doing that because we Take his the sometimes if parameter from the previous phase. We just continue the calculation right so we can just. Add a new face and add more load steps by adding a new face with. Number of loads that you do not have to redo the entire face calculation. OK, back to the questions. In Page Africa Carcinoma steps while it's made in the left graph is much larger than the right graph. OK so this goes back to the same plot. These are not for the for the same analysis. Graph the graph on page 11, are not for the exact same analysis. So we can uh uh this is just to show you that you should still. Get more uh calculation steps when you do not reach a plateau for this some measure family. Print off the question the safety calculations adequate for other applications that espouse thumbs? Etc. If you assess the. Calculation for short strength, yes, you can apply it. And then we just lose his strength. An interface element. Branded, which come from the soil. These are also reduced according to the same effect of safety. So you can do it as well. Make sure that you check your structural forces and see what's happening. Always check the mechanism if you believe it because there are certain type of calculation in which it's not. Appropriate but French will piles where we rely on an bearing an on shop resistance. Dell stores of course, also depend on the source trying so you can do that definitely yes. Karola. Carla I ask the question of all the points inside the food area must show the same fat city. Yes, defective safety is sometimes have value is a global parameter for the entire model so it going to show you the exact. So it's global reduced strength factor so any point will give you the same factor of safety. So here safety calculation at MSF is 1.3 is that mean that she a fee parameters are reduced for 30%. Uhm no it means that are up Cheyenne Tangent Phi. I reduced with effective 1.3. So that's the exact definition. Question from Charles here? How do you check the forces moments after when you have analyzed the concrete retaining wall? Using volume elements, but you can do for this is that you can use the structural elements. Structural forces from volumes tool. So that there's a stretch integration over this and then you can check that. Um. But. Yeah, so that's that's the thing that you can do or you can assess stresses in the material and see if it doesn't violate. The maximum compressive stress of the concrete. That's not a way to do that to just look at the stresses of the concrete retaining wall and look at the. Stress it if they don't violate the maximum compressive strength. It's probably maybe even a bit more accurate. Well, I'm a tundra after question does it mean elastic plastic structure element should be used when we run another factor of safety? Um. That's up to you to decide if you want to apply that but I would recommend check the structural forces. And see. If they overshoot the capacity. In a lot of cases they don't Alpharetta capacity, but for instance, if you use an excavation projects. Quite likely that you overshoot the capacity in that case, yes use the Elasto plastic structure elements. But. It might be that you say a lot. The structure elements are not a limiting factor. I just want this check the soil so you can check this. And judge for yourself would be the best option. Delete art. The question shouldn't, it should go back to close to its original factory safety after the element reaches plastic limit. Any resistance so this is again the question about the tractor safety. Let me see if I can quickly load the model. I've saved it here, so let's look at this. Inscripted calculations and also need to share my screen so you can see what I'm doing. In this case here we had the uh. Failure of RLS to plastic plate material, she just wants to elastic doesn't feel yet. The question was here shouldn't go back to the original factor of safety now that's not happening because, although we have an elastic plastic limit still. There are forces inside our structural elements which are maximized but still that resistance there up until this maximum. So that means that the factor safety will not go back to the state before so it's just a plastic limit so it's going to yield. It's not a breaking of the of the retaining wall. But that's a difference so it's not breaking its yielding of the retaining wall so that means while yielding. It still has resistance. Let's At. And with a fire shield analysis handles Chevron to elements of fabric Ann. If you can model the case. Even if using plexus so you have, like a layer of geosynthetics soil layers to synthetics soil. If you're going to calculate that won the fight, she reduction will also work. Simply because it's a general method that's applied for all the cases here. It's going to lose their soul strength. Without Peter Reproduce, which stretches and with that, we can calculate the factor of safety. Let's see a lot of questions here and I still have 5 minutes left. So I have to pick a few questions here. Gotta be bit quicker how interface record strength reduction. Questionnaires on the interface elements do they also have strength reduction factor? Yes, if you? FA strength criteria in your interface and multiple times, you have them. These will be reduced with the same reduction factor. Turn off the question for embedded, bro element strength reduction does apply both the interface and Beam resistance. Fully embedded beamer elements if you specify your shaft resistance using linear multilinear option. Death strength will not be reduced. If he uses using from adjacent soil or from the surrounding soil. Then it takes a string from surrounding so then the factor of safety will be applied there. Um. Well ask the question why does she leads to high factor safety so if you have the latency? When those sorts of Dilate actually wanna dilate actually it ended. We have fully and expansion. But if we have under control behavior. What happens then is that with Andrew behavior? Which we don't have any volume change and we don't have any. Change but it still wants to Dilate basically you have to develop access port. On the pressure because the grip or pressures will make sure that we don't have any volume change. An because what's happening then is that? In order to have still force equilibrium in which total stress of course governs the equilibrium. Then the effective stress has to increase if we lower the accessport pressures in and we still have the same total stress. We have to increase the effective stretch where we increase the effective stress. That means Armour circle moves more to the left. Uh. Which means we have higher stresses and with higher stretches when we also have the friction angle? It also means we get higher strength there. And so that's going to increase. Hum increase each other so it gives us a fat higher factor of safety. Regarding the local stability of certain zone can be checked using flashes today or only the global stability can be checked. In principle collection reduce everything in the model. I also see Estelle for screen share so that's good if you want to. Certain factors from the analysis that you say OK. I don't want to reduce the strength for that part. We can have the option apply strength reduction, you can see it here we can activate the activate this one. If it's deactivated. There's some MSF parameter will not be applied to that specific show cluster. So with that, we can also really useless elements. Well, it. Cloudy asked viable displacement stability and have no physical, meaning I will have to refer to the article that we have 3 hours. Short on time so please refer to that one. Hum. Let me. Also share that article with you. Um. Even though I better ask the question what are the difference between factor safety playing with both limited gravy method and? Shear strength reduction and with very with the latency. Uh most laid with God, I think this is a very interesting question. I'm not going to compare anything with the limit agreement today. An uh. Yeah, if you compare associated with non associated flow models be very careful if you have deeper sleep services. Hum. Because if we have associated flow, which means the Lynch angle same as the friction angle if its own. Deeper surely is actually we have constraints or behavior, which actually is things want to Dilate and that's what's happening with the hide latency angle? Actually will get a lot of up there, you get a lot of volume expansion because it's constrained that's not possible. Which is higher stress is an might also lead to bit higher factor safety so be careful be using associated flow models. With deeper slip surfaces. I'm currently working almost better favorite embankments found it on high plastic clay or forgetting factor facing more than. Free Asian some annoyed. Uh from Mukesh Patel School of engineering. I suggest to send service requests to a Department too. Find out exactly what the cost for this is because I cannot handle this one right now anytime given. Today. Uh machine art thanks for the presentation and I will share the whole presentation will be shared with you. Recording will be unbanned available. Tomorrow, maybe already later today depending on the time of processing. Hum. Or else that one. Let's I'm going to show you where to ask for support. At the link to the service request here. Trouble one ask you any insight in the maximum letter resistance to them better be Maryland lectures to the. Um. I say little behavior for the embedded beam Rome pleasure through the usually this is more 3D effect. Hum. I will try and do not rely your design on this from places to the if you only want to check this go through 3D model. It's a very local effect and better beam rose they? Arm and easy way to get a 3D behavior of this discretized files and want to get sort of equivalent. Um. Behavior issues was made behavior for our plane strain an model so I would not lie at the announcers on that one. An Adela Martinez asked the question what to do when the factor saved his increasing all the time and not rise to the flat part of the image of curve. I would say check what the what kind of behavior you get. An uhm so it's not difficult to chase typically will get the plateau, but not always it could be. Do you have progressive failure in the model you have to analyze the failure service in that case let's say? That we did you get a factor safety of 2.1 while the design requires 1.6? You can at least explain why the factor safety is higher and what's going on in the model that if you reduce the strain more. Sort of progressive failure behavior, but still, it leads to a higher factor safety. OK, I still have a bunch of questions here is the woman that left before the presentation has to. Um changed, but enough to define convergence. Um. So long vergence basically it's usually in the same type of. Confusion Catiria as the other types calculation using it tolerated error maximum accurate plastic stress points. Those kind of things and then. At the end. Get the so much effort displacements to it assess if you get a stable ferry service. You should safety now this is only applicable slope stability problems now you can apply it in different types. Collisions in activation problems. Foundation problems. Whenever you have to adjust the slope stability. Based on your when you have to assess the factor of safety for the source strength. The question is safety analysis that gives you strength informations. They don't have physical meaning is there way to eliminate it. No, we can add the. To this deformations that just occur focus on the incremental displacements and doing and. Physical the absolute displacement, another physical, meaning so I would not display these results. Ann. Well converting gravity, loading calculation materials defines hardening sold those shares not considered in the calculation of stresses. Um. So somebody asked in graphically loading the Oh sure is not considered that's true simply because we do a. Plastic initial ization of the NES classic initialization of the stresses which means so everything will be in normally consolidated state. We do not know what the organization would be that can only be done using a kind of procedure. Can the global stability be checked with his own already covered that one and not, outside the Philly Management would give the same factor of safety. Yeah. There's always one factor of safety. It's a global factor safety for the entire model, but we just used. Control points inside the factors inside the failure zone to assess the. Hum. To assess the deformations occuring so it can adjust so we can see if a critical. Field service has been developed. Question is described other two calculation types afraid I don't have enough time for that one. Maybe it's a good idea to do something. Web and our own calculation types otherwise I would suggest look at one of the previous special interest group. We explained this. Richard Handly asked when you say the signals generates accessport pressure, yeah, I mean, indeed it's additional accessport precious? Ghost by the result of the strength reduction methods and sharing that's occurring there. Is there a way to? I don't do appreciate factors special effective stretching plexus. Somebody asked her how to use design approaches and I will share 8. Article with you. Um. So something on design approaches most shared the article uhm. Straight portion of any more incursions maximum bandpass rich doesn't mean that we have to use our role of higher PM capacity. Hum. And final question here does the flashy reduction as a stages of generate additional support pressures to generate the result of each consolidation stage? Hum. So each fashion reduction has its own behavior. It's needed to run the. Calculation it can generate additional access for precious just by the strength reduction and redistribution of stresses have that can lead. To change in volume for elements that also continue accessport pressures. Um. I'm going to share a uh. Tutorial with you in which we explain this type of behavior. So here we go. So OK that is, it for today. I'm already 5 minutes overtime, so thank you. All for attending I think I covered. Almost all the questions here, so that's good. I hope to see you next time for our next special interest group video that should be happening in. And the 11th of February. Or if it is this with any of the other items and if you have questions. Please visit the Bentley communities wiki. So we can have the there's lot of information there or send the service request using the link. I shared with you. So thank you today and I hope to see you the next time. Thank you. _1597274149308

This Geotechnical Analysis Special Interest Group virtual workshop guides engineering professionals in the use of PLAXIS, and the strength reduction method (or phi/c reduction method), to calculate factors of safety which determine soil strength as well as stability of slopes and embankments.

You will learn how to:

- Use the Safety analysis with the phi/c reduction method
- Assess the Factors of Safety
- Inspect the failure mechanism in PLAXIS Output

***The webcast will be streamed through your computer, so there is no dial-in number. Please make sure your computer speakers (or headset) are turned on and the volume is set to an audible level so you can hear the presenters. Help*